The main routes to nitrobenzaldehyde begin with the nitration of styrene and cinnamic acid followed by the conversions of the resulting 2-nitrostyrene and 2-nitrocinnamic acids. Cinnamaldehyde can also be nitrated, e.g., in a solution of acetic acid, in high-yield to 2-nitrocinnamaldehyde. This compound is then oxidized to 2-nitrocinnamic acid, which is decarboxylated to the 2-nitrostyrene. The vinyl group can be oxidized in a number of different ways to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. In one synthetic process, toluene is mono-nitrated at cold temperatures to 2-nitrotoluene, with about 58% being converted to the ortho- isomer, the remaining forming meta- and para- isomers. The 2-nitrotoluene can then be oxidized to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde. Alternatively, 2-nitrotoluene as formed above can be halogenated to a 2-nitrobenzyl halide followed by oxidation with DMSO and sodium bicarbonate to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde, which is subsequently purified with the creation of a bisulfite adduct. The nitration of benzaldehyde produces mostly 3-nitrobenzaldehyde, with yields being about 19% for the ortho-, 72% for the meta- and 9% for the para isomer. For this reason, the nitration of benzaldehyde to yield 2-nitrobenzaldehyde is not cost-effective.